Iran is located in West Asia and borders seven countries, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey. To the north of the country lies the Caspian Sea whilst the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman lie to the south.
Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast.
Iran has a variable climate. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall whilst spring and autumn are mild, with dry, hot summers. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot.
Iran has the fourth largest oil reserves and the largest natural gas reserves in the world as well as reserves of coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc and sulphur.