Tajikistan is a landlocked Central Asian country sharing borders with Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
Over 90% of Tajikistan is covered by mountains, including those of the Pamir Mountains and the Alay Mountains. The difficult terrain separates Tajikistan's two population centres, which occupy the lowlands of the southern and northern sections of the country. Tajikistan lies in an active seismic belt where severe earthquakes are common.
The climate of Tajikistan is greatly influenced by the country's geography changing according to elevation. The northern lowlands are in the main shielded by mountains from the Arctic air, whilst in the subtropical southwestern lowlands the climate is arid. During the winter, the temperature in the Pamir Mountains ranges between -15 to -20°C.
Tajikistan has some reserves of coal and natural gas, but its most significant natural resource comes from its hydropower potential.